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Plans for a new passport have sparked debate over the inclusion of an electronic chip containing biometric details, and the creation of a central fingerprint database.
Peter Heinzmann, a professor of internet technologies and applications at Rapperswil Technical College outside Zurich, tells swissinfo of the risks posed by the project.
Supporters, including the government and a majority in parliament, argue a European single border treaty, known as the Schengen accord, obliges Switzerland to introduce biometric passports by March next year.
However, a central fingerprint register is not a requirement for participation in the Schengen agreement.
The government says the new travel document will ensure travel freedom and allow visa-free entry into the United States.
But opponents argue that data protection is at stake.
Voters have the final say on the introduction of the new passports on May 17.